Friday, November 30, 2012

Arunachalam Muruganantham's venture

Arunachalam Muruganantham story has been posted before. The Open magazine story mentioned his aim: "I am now trying to start a low cost sanitary napkin making movement. I think socialist entrepreneurs are the backbone of the future. I supply my machines to women in self-help groups in 14 states, from Uttaranchal and Andhra Pradesh to Bihar, and make them owners of the business." I made enquiries and found that he supplies two types of machines through Jayashree Industries, Coimbatore. The first costs slightly under two lakk rupees and the second over three lakhs. thet install the machines and there is a guarantee of six months. From the blurb
"The salient features of this model are as follows:
·    It converts the elaborate process of manufacturing sanitary napkins into a Gandhian operation. The tools used in this model are as much "machines" as the charkha, the pestle or the grindstone. In other words, this model harnesses technology for the benefit of the masses.

·    It operates on simple tasks that can be mastered within 1 day, and does not require exceptional skills. So anybody can use the model and achieve success.

·    It addresses the issue of sanitary napkins being unaffordable and/or unavailable to around 97% of Indian women –this scenario is same around all under developed countries  these women therefore resort to unhygienic alternatives and occasionally face embarrassing situations in public."
 The site says that the machines are easy to operate and suitable or women self help groups and will employ roughly six to ten women. Further enquiries can be obtained from them ( I got the reply in an hour but the website link given below does not seem to be working at the moment) at:

COIMBATORE 641 108, MOBILE : 92831 55128 / 94422 24069

Thursday, November 29, 2012

A Geeta Dutt-Sudha Malhotra duet

Links. Nov. 29, 2012

R.S. Jennings of United Stated Institute of Peace on Democratic Breakthroughs: The Ingredients of Successful Revolts via Duncan Green who has a summary.There is a coming seminar at CT  on 'The Priority of Democracy' and other books. invites further thoughts on grassroots activism.

Links to two articles on Bal Thackeray in 'Law and Other Things'. I am looking forward to a study of the different trajectories of DMK progeny, Shiv Sena and Telangana state movement.

Discussions why Asians overwhelmingly voted for Obama and Andrew Gelman by Richard Posner. From the second article "According to exit polls in the Nov. 6 election, Asian American voters favored Obama over Romney by a ratio of more than 3-to-1 (76 percent versus 23 percent). This has puzzled a number of Republicans. Asian Americans, more than any other group, including white suburbanites, who are a backbone of Republican support, have demographic characteristics that would seem to make them support low taxes, fiscal austerity, conventional family values, and hostility to affirmative action (especially in higher education)—all policies strongly associated with today’s Republican Party." The profile is similar in Australia and from my limited knowledge of the Indian community, more of them seem to vote the conservative party called the Liberals than the Labour party. 

And a final thought on the persistence of 'traditions' and 'family values'. Recently, we arranged a micro loan for a Dalit christian lady to start a small  business in time for Christmas sales. When we asked her whether she started purchases, she responded that it was magalavaram, not an auspicious day to start. A reasonably well-off Indian friend in Australia says that his brother in India did not make enough money as a banker since he was afraid of displaying disproportionate assets and if only he had sent the money to him, he could have made a fortune for both of them by investing in real estate.

Tuesday, November 27, 2012

Ela Bhatt's favourite quote

From a profile of Ela Bhatt:
Then she told of her favorite. Freedom, one woman said, was “looking a policeman in the eye.”

Monday, November 26, 2012

NY Times on deep-learning programs

From Scientists See Promise in Deep-Learning Programs:
"Deep learning was given a particularly audacious display at a conference last month in Tianjin, China, when Richard F. Rashid, Microsoft’s top scientist, gave a lecture in a cavernous auditorium while a computer program recognized his words and simultaneously displayed them in English on a large screen above his head.
Then, in a demonstration that led to stunned applause, he paused after each sentence and the words were translated into Mandarin Chinese characters, accompanied by a simulation of his own voice in that language, which Dr. Rashid has never spoken.
One of the most striking aspects of the research led by Dr. Hinton is that it has taken place largely without the patent restrictions and bitter infighting over intellectual property that characterize high-technology fields.
“We decided early on not to make money out of this, but just to sort of spread it to infect everybody,” he said. “These companies are terribly pleased with this.”"
via MindHacks post Advances in Artificial Intelligence: Deep Learning which has more learning.

Sunday, November 25, 2012

Self-filling bottle prototype

Ed Yong links to several interesting reports, among them this one:"The Namib Desert beetle lives in an area that only gets half an inch of rainfall per year, and so it draws 12 percent of its weight in water from the air to quench its thirst. NBD Nano co-founder Deckard Sorensen was inspired by the beetle to the point that he conceptualized a self-filling water bottle, which he hopes to bring to the market by 2014.

Every morning, the beetle climbs to the top of a sand dune, faces away from the wind, and ensures that water condenses in hydrophilic areas of its back. The water then flows to a storage area in the beetle.
To mimic nature, Sorenson layered a surface with hydrophilic and hydrophobic coatings, used a fan to pass air over the surface, and managed to get water to condense. This eventually led to the design of a conceptual self-filling water bottle."

Profile of Nadia

in the Open Magazine, Along the way, there is a surprising statement that Jamshed Wadia was inspired by  M.N.Roy and 'his political orientation had a profound effect on his work'. Somje of Nadia films are reviewed in memasabstory, the latest review is here.

Kaushiki Chakrabarty

In a commentpost on 'yaad piya ki aaye', Richard Singer mentioned a version of it by Kaushiki Chakraborty. Here is a different version from a concert in Amsterdam with various links and the continuation. The same thumri by her father Ajoy Chakraba(o)rty. A brief profile at Tehelka.

Saturday, November 24, 2012

Many trees a sip away from dehydratiobn

says a report in ScienceNews "In plumbing systems, trees have to make tradeoffs. Capturing carbon dioxide in the air for growth and metabolism is a risky business. A tree sacrifices 400 molecules of water to evaporation to snag one molecule of carbon. The new study, Choat says, reveals that trees are maximizing their carbon capture for food even though it strains the plumbing."

My favourite Kamala dance

via A Clear Copy of Kamala's Tandava Dance in Sivagangai Seemai
Minai, following Randor Guy, gives 1957 as the year when the film was released. From discussions in Tamil blogs I get the impression that it was released in 1959 soon after Shivaji Ganeshsan;s 'Veerapandya Kattabomman' and lost out to the later film in box office.

Friday, November 23, 2012

Best soccer goals

After the recent Ibrahimovic goal, the contest is on again about the best soccer goal ever. One of my favourites is this goal by George Best
I remember at least one more equally impressive goal scored by Best in 1968 County games; may be it was not recorded for posterity. 

Thursday, November 22, 2012

Contesting the "Nature" of Conformity

Contesting the "Nature" of Conformity: What Milgram and Zimbardo Studies Really Show by A.Haslam and S.D. Reicher
"Understanding of the psychology of tyranny is dominated by classic studies from the 1960s and 1970s: Milgram's research on obedience to authority and Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment. Supporting popular notions of the banality of evil, this research has been taken to show that people conform passively and unthinkingly to both the instructions and the roles that authorities provide, however malevolent these may be. Recently, though, this consensus has been challenged by empirical work informed by social identity theorizing. This suggests that individuals' willingness to follow authorities is conditional on identification with the authority in question and an associated belief that the authority is right."
Discussion at ScienceDaily: Human Obedience: The Myth of Blind Conformity

Discussion of a related paper and further links in psychologicalscience blog post:
Not Obedience But Felloship

Wednesday, November 21, 2012

A fascinating article by Anand Vaidya

A subtle Alignment (via 3quarksdaily) which among other things explains the rise of Shiv Sena. Excerpts:
" It’s easy for progressives to forget that collectives exist on both the left and the right, and that the decline of left-wing collectives doesn’t necessarily result in the absence of collectives more generally. History in Mumbai and elsewhere has shown that it doesn’t take long for empty space to be occupied by other groups, often from the political right.
The Sena, which has explicitly invoked European fascist movements from the outset, describes itself in its founding documents as a “volunteer organization” rather than a political party or union; it was created to defend a Marathi claim to Maharashtra and to Mumbai. This claim was initially defended at the expense of South Indians and Communists. Later, as an ideology of Hindu nationalism became ascendant in national politics, the Marathi claim to Maharashtra and Mumbai was made at the expense of Muslim inhabitants. The Sena spread through the city’s neighborhoods, establishing shakhas(neighborhood organizations) in zopadpattis and chawls. For the Marathi-speaking people they represented, the shakhas succeeded in obtaining services from local officials that the state had never before provided: water connections, electricity, even employment. For non-Marathi speakers, the Sena was at best exclusionary; at worst, it boycotted their stores, harassed them on the street, and smashed their windows.
The failure of the 1982 strike killed both the mills and the unions, leaving the city with an even larger unemployed population and base for Thackeray’s Sena. As Mumbai’s economy shifted from manufacturing to real estate, and as mills and slums were cleared for redevelopment, the Shiv Sena emerged as the party with the strongest local organization, the one most able to both represent neighborhoods under threat and profit from their clearance."
Much more in the article, which is supposed to be on Katherine Boo's book  'Behind the Beautiful Forevers'

Monday, November 19, 2012

Links, November 19, 2012

Scientific American article More than child's play: Ability to think scientifically declines as kids grow up "One reason for our failure to capitalize on this scientific intuition we display as toddlers may be that we are pretty good, as children and adults, at reasoning out puzzles that have something to do with real life but flounder when the puzzle is abstract, Goodman suggests—and it is abstract puzzles that educators tend to use when testing the ability to think scientifically. In addition, as we learn more about the world, our knowledge and beliefs trump our powers of scientific reasoning. The message for educators would seem to be to build on the intuition that children bring to science while doing a better job of making the connection between abstract concepts and real-world puzzles. "
Responses linked in Children Are Not "Natural" Scientists  ( via Ed Yong). Actually, I think (from my limited experience)that children also have powers of abstraction, but may be as they start doing many more things, certain aspects of their ability are not developed for many of them.
Mark Changizi: in The colossal pile of jibbersh behind discovery and its implications to science finding (via Ed Yong): "... where we see the everyday-ness of our science minds is in the discovery process itself, that is, in the efforts to find the new idea (hypothesis, theory, whatever) in the first place. Discoveries can be dressed up well, but the way we go about finding our ideas is almost always an embarrassing display of buffoonery."
Ten top myths about Israeli attack on Gaza by Juan Cole
Chapati Mystery discusses Bal Thacheray's 'legacies' See also Wall Street Journal article and Naipaul reference (possibly a reference to his descrption of Shiv Sena work at the grass roots level in 'A million mutinies now').
3quarksdaily's policy on comments, at least the expression of the policy, is causing concern to some respected commentors like Omar

Thursday, November 15, 2012

university of the future

an Australian study. From the introduction:
"Our primary hypothesis is that the dominant university model in Australia — a broad-based teaching and research institution, supported by a large asset base and a large, predominantly in-house back office — will prove unviable in all but a few cases over the next 10-15 years. At a minimum,incumbent universities will need to significantly streamline their operations and asset base, at the same time as incorporating new teaching and learning delivery mechanisms, a diffusion of channels to market, and stakeholder expectations for increased impact. At its extreme, private universities and possibly some incumbent public universities will create new products and markets that merge parts of the education sector with other sectors, such as media, technology, innovation, and venture capital. Exciting times are ahead — and challenges too.
We have summarised the drivers of change of this brave new world into five key trends:

1.Democratisation of knowledge and access — The massive increase in the availability of‘knowledge’ online and the mass expansion of access to university education in developed and developing markets means a fundamental change in the role of universities as originators and keepers of knowledge.
2.Contestability of markets and funding — Competition for students, in Australia and abroad, is reaching new levels of intensity, at the same time as governments globally face tight budgetary environments. Universities will need to compete for students and government funds as never before.

3.Digital technologies — Digital technologies have transformed media, retail, entertainment and many other industries — higher education is next. Campuses will remain, but digital technologies will transform the way education is delivered and accessed, and the way ‘value’ is created by higher
education providers, public and private alike.
4.Global mobility — Global mobility will grow for students, academics, and university brands. This will not only intensify competition, but also create opportunities for much deeper global partnerships and broader access to student and academic talent.
5.Integration with industry — Universities will need to build significantly deeper relationships with industry in the decade ahead — to differentiate teaching and learning programs, support the funding and application of research, and reinforce the role of universities as drivers of innovation
and growth."
According to Timothy Taylor many of the insights of this study apply around the world.
More about online education links here.

'yaad piya ki aaye' by two masters

Wednesday, November 14, 2012

Bhimsen Joshi and Manna Dey in 'Basant Bahar'

Bhimsen Joshi

Tuesday, November 13, 2012

Telugu idioms and phrases

Padabhhamdha Parijatamu (పదబంధ పారిజాతము), a 1959 publication is available online at
via a message in Telugupadam!topic/telugupadam/7NC3WSmXUEc
P.S. I have been informed that a second volume is also available at DLI under the title "padaban'dha paarijaatamu" and both will be included in the dictionary search of

Monday, November 12, 2012

Saturday, November 10, 2012

Ashutosh Jogalekar reviews Mandelbrot's autobiography

I used to think that Mandelbrot was doing some kind of flaky science. It is only recently I found that he made many interesting discoveries.After seeing Jogalekar's review, I promptly bought the book and so far read the parts about Mandelbrot's year at Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton. It reminded of my wasted year there where the only thing that I did was to learn driving and gave lifts to Michael Freedman.

About identities in Bangladesh

by Prashanta Tripura in Himal. The article partly reviews Richard Eaton's 'The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier,1204-1760' available online. More online books at

Friday, November 09, 2012

Some science links, November 9th

Ed Yong on secret passwords of birds " fairy-wrens have a way of telling their chicks apart from cuckoos. Diane Colombelli-Negrelfrom Flinders University in Australia has shown that mothers sing a special tune to their eggs before they’ve hatched. This “incubation call” contains a special note that acts like a familial password. The embryonic chicks learn it, and when they hatch, they incorporate it into their begging calls. Horsfield’s bronze-cuckoos lay their eggs too late in the breeding cycle for their chicks to pick up the same notes. They can’t learn the password in time, and their identities can be rumbled."

Parrot in captivity manufactures tools, something not seen in the wild

From ScienceNews Trunk in cheek, elephant mimics korean

From ScienceNews An ancient civilization's wet ascent and dry demise

Tom Stafford on Zeigarnik effect and other things: "There’s a textbook psychological phenomenon called the Zeigarnik Effect, named after Russian psychologist Bluma Zeigarnik. In the 1930s, Zeigarnik was in a busy cafe and heard that the waiters had fantastic memories for orders – but only up until the orders had been delivered. They could remember the requests of a party of 12, but once the food and drink had hit the table they forgot about it instantly, and were unable to recall what had been so solid moments before. Zeigarnik gave her name to the whole class of problems where incomplete tasks stick in memory......A plausible explanation for the existence of the Effect is that the mind is designed to reorganise around the pursuit of goals. If those goals are met, then the mind turns to something else."

From ScienceDaily Antibiotics disrupt gut bacteria in infants, According to one of the authors "This research suggests that the merits of administering broad spectrum antibiotics -- those that kill many bacterial species -- in infants should be reassessed, to examine the potential to use more targeted, narrow-spectrum antibiotics, for the shortest period possible".

Vinod Rai and Aruna Roy

An Outlook article says The Comptroller and Auditor General, Vinod Rai is once again in the bad books of the government for having held a mirror to the malaise in governance. Speaking at the World Economic forum in Delhi earlier this week, Rai said that RTI has succeeded in making politicians and bureaucrats more accountable and helped to reduce 'brazen' policy decisions.'"
in a wide ranging n interview Aruna Roy describes the beginning of  RTI  in India:
" a movement has to evolve from a group process and thought, it can’t just come from anywhere. Many of us felt that secrecy was terrible – we have something called the Official Secrets Act in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, wherever the British ruled. They’ve left that great gift to us, the Official Secrets Act. So every time you asked for information from the government you came up against this block. So we were all aware that that Act needed to be set aside in order for more transparency. In fact the VP Singh government had tried to enact a RTI law. So there is a history.
But what actually sharpened this was the struggle for minimum wages that MKSS was organising and fighting in rural Rajasthan. Time and again, people were told that they were liars, and the official records became terribly important both to prove their integrity, and to get a right to a livelihood, or a right to a wage, which meant food, which meant staving off hunger, which meant living a reasonable life. So at that point it became a critical issue.
But the definition of the movement actually came from many people. I’d like to refer to Sushila here. Sushila really defined it in 1996 after a forty day strike – a sit-down strike in Bijabar. We had formed the National Campaign for People’s Right to Information. We went to Delhi for a press conference, and Sushila was asked, ‘What are you doing here? You’ve only passed your fourth class, you don’t know anything about academics. It’s a big intellectual question. We’re talking about freedom of expression and Article 19 of the Indian Constitution.’ But she said to them, ‘Look, when I send my son with 10 rupees to the market place, when he comes back I ask for accounts. The government spends billions of rupees in my name. Shouldn’t I ask for my accounts?’ And she said in Hindi, ‘Hamara paisa, hamara hisab.’ So she said, ‘It’s our money, our accounts.’
So it is the simple, common-sense logic that actually defined the Right to Information movement. Then it acquired all the other various layers of the legislation, and an understanding which spread further, which spread to every aspect of governance. Today, RTI is one of the best used laws in India. But it grew from a common-sense perception of peoplehood."

Thursday, November 08, 2012

The Economist on Bangladesh

From Out of the basket:
:.... in the past 20 years Bangladesh has made extraordinary improvements in almost every indicator of human welfare. The average Bangladeshi can now expect to live four years longer than the average Indian, though Indians are twice as rich. Girls’ education has soared, and the country has hugely reduced the numbers of early deaths of infants, children and mothers. Some of these changes are among the fastest social improvements ever seen. Remarkably, the country has achieved all this even though economic growth, until recently, has been sluggish and income has risen only modestly.....
Bangladesh shows what happens if you take women seriously as agents of development."
Longer article here, via Duncan Green.

Juan Cole on Obama

in Informed Comment:
"Clearly, Obama does not have progressive instincts, and prefers to rule from the center. This impulse is wrong-headed, since the center didn’t man his campaign offices or make phone calls for him. Ruling from the center means taking his base for granted while reaching out to relatively conservative constituencies. This tactic is why we don’t have a single-payer health insurance plan. It is why Wall Street reform has consisted of half-measures. It is why we are imposing a financial blockade on Iran that could easily spiral into a war. When it comes to the arch-conservatives, for the most part, Obama has never learned to just say ‘no.’
It does not help that Obama will face virtually the same, obstructionist Tea Party House of Representatives that stymied him for the past two years. Instead of going to them and asking how he could make them happy, he has to threaten to make an all-out push to turn them out of office in 2014 if they continue to say ‘no’ to everything.
Progressives will have to push Obama to the left if we are to get what we want. This situation is nothing new– FDR’s New Deal would not have amounted to much if workers hadn’t engaged in widespread wildcat strikes and if people had not resorted to civil disobedience."
More expectations in Obama wins Slate Staff
His vision "Becoming the 44th president of the United States, or even the first African-American to hold the post, had never been enough for Barack Obama. Just two years after arriving in the Senate, he spoke unabashedly of becoming one of the greatest presidents, a transformative figure like Abraham Lincoln or Franklin D. Roosevelt who would heal the country’s divisions, address its most critical problems and turn Americans in a hopeful new direction."

Wednesday, November 07, 2012

"I am a boy but I think very much"

Why so much blather about US elections?

Not clear to me. It always seemed that Obama would win and with country struggling with itself, it would not matter much for the rest of the world. Here are some articles vaguely related to the elections.
Aditya Chakrabortty at The Guardian America has supersized inequality. Political Gridlock was bound to follow. Both the above via Mark Thoma
Fadhel Kaboub on The economic consequences of Mr. Obama
P.S. Who ever wins will try to marginalize UNCTAD. Another article in Triple Crisis says:"... the options are a slow erosion of the New Deal policies or a pretty direct attack on the same policies. Progressives should certainly vote for the lesser evil, but should prepare to fight to preserve the rights won over the last century. The election will not be not the end of the fight, but just the beginning."

Duncan Green visits Delhi

and comments in How change happens in India- via Supreme Court and 'judicial activism':
"At a national level, when it comes to rights and poverty, India seems to combine a sclerotic legislature, a fitfully interested government, and a hyperactive judiciary, which produces a rather unique brand of politics. Social activism in India often seems to involve getting the Supreme Court to rule that the government has to do X, then mobilizing around implementation of the ruling. Whether it’s on the Right to Food(right) or the Right to Education, the Court has been involved in some of the best known progressive legislation in India.
And that culture filters down to the grassroots. Activist talk is dotted with references to PILs – public interest litigation. Women in slums told me they were bringing claims under India’s Right to Information Act to find out what their children’s schools should be providing, or to get community toilets functioning again (cutting through the bureaucratic fog – who is actually in charge of these toilets, which have been shut for the last 7 years?).According to Harsh ‘the Supreme Court is the most effective arm of government on social policy. I’d been talking to government for years on homelessness without result. I wrote a letter to the Supreme Court saying people were dying in the Delhi winter, and this is the result.’
Shailaja Chandra, ex chief secretary of Delhi says “if the Supreme Court doesn’t react and pull up the government, who can? But they can only hammer the government, they can’t do anything themselves. It’s like a dog, baring its teeth. But it’s well informed and does shame ministers into action, both centrally and at state level. PIL is effective; litigants do their homework, and come up with solutions to implement.”
Fine, but not all activists are as well connected as Harsh, and not all PILs are progressive – plenty of industry lobbyists use the tactic, leading to an overall environment that is volatile, characterized by abrupt and unpredictable changes in policy direction."

Tuesday, November 06, 2012

From Hua Hsu's 'Clotted Cream'

a review of 'Twilight of the Elites: America After Meritocracy' by Christopher Hayes:
"Our leaders have been called worse names than “ metrosexual black Abe Lincoln.” But seldom have they come to stand in for the entire possibility of hope, change, progress, a bold reboot of the status quo—rarely do we have the opportunity to feel profoundly, soul-crushingly disappointed by them. Such a feeling now clusters around Barack Obama, the first black president and, just as recently as 2008, proof that the American meritocracy might still work. But four years feels like lifetimes ago. Back then you were in a field with millions of other true believers, waving your hands and thinking there’s nothing more beautiful-sounding than the harmony of strangers; now you’re trying to peel a sticker off the bumper of your Volvo. Better, perhaps, never to have hoped at all.
Do you believe that the political system has compromised Obama, or that he, like anyone who might scale such heights, was merely an accessory all along? Your answer traces the circumference of your imagination. This question is at the heart of Christopher Hayes’Twilight of the Elites, an attempt by the Nation editor and MSNBC host to reckon with our mounting restlessness toward the elite class, from politicians to titans of industry, spiritual leaders to baseball idols."

Will be it be any different this time?
Other reviews of 'Twilight of Elites' at The Atlantic, at Crooked Timber, Inside Higher Education and Wikipedia.

Standard & Poor hit with compensation

From The Age: "STANDARD & Poor's will pay nearly $20 million in compensation and legal costs to more than a dozen Australian councils following a landmark victory against the global ratings agency.
The case paves the way for investors around the world to take action against S&P for financial ratings that turn out to be misleading......S&P has said it will appeal."

Monday, November 05, 2012

Global mobility of scientists

Abi at Nanopolitan has several interesting links one of which is on the global mobility of scientists in Nature News by Richard van Noorden. From the conclusion:
"Science may increasingly be a globalized enterprise, but until would-be competitors boost their spending on science and facilities, it will simply give scientists even more opportunities to clump inside the countries that are already at the top of the pack."

Duncan Green visits Lucknow slums

and asks:
"The foundation also wants to counter anti-slum prejudice among Lucknow’s better-off residents by highlighting the extent to which the slum actually subsidises the city (eg by supplying cut-price domestics and street vendors, paying sales taxes, rubbish recycling). Anybody know of research on this in India or elsewhere?"

Sunday, November 04, 2012

Films from Lahore, before and after partition

in six parts (but I could not find the second one). The first part above.

Friday, November 02, 2012

Some responses to Andrew Haldane speech

on 'Socially useful banking' at FT Alphaville. It also provides highlights of the speech.
Yves Smith at Naked Capitalism  says "And despite the efforts to diss it, OWS found an audience in the corridors of power. FT Alphaville chaired a discussion of socially useful banking, and the keynote speaker was Andrew Haldane, the executive director of financial stability for the Bank of England. Haldane is highly respected both among economists, who regard his work as creative and rigorous, and international banking regulators. He has the potential of being the sort of economist who leaves a lasting imprint on the profession. So his positive remarks about Occupy are a particularly powerful endorsement. "
See also Gulzar Natarajan post which focuses on the 'too-big-to-fail subsidy' 

Thursday, November 01, 2012

Arvind Subramanian on why nations fail

From a review of 'Why Nations Fail' by Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson ( via Chris Blattman):
"... even twenty years from now, China and India are unlikely to be adequately explained by Acemoglu and Robinson’s thesis.
..... the inability of Acemoglu and Robinson to explain the development trajectories of these two large countries is a fault not of their rich and excellent book but of the sui generis, uncooperative reality of Chinese and Indian history. "